Per very early style of Roman architecture, the „opus quadratum“ dates back to the time of the ancient Etruscans, before the beginning of the Roman Republic
Like any other concrete, Roman concrete consists of aggregate and mortar. Per binder, such as gypsum, was used. What other type of binder was also used? Be careful, though. You don’t want esatto put this per your mojito!
After being mixed with vaso, the mortar, which consisted of gypsum or lime, would harden over time. In some areas pozzolana, also called pit sand, was used.
It was common in ancient times for prominent Romans onesto construct tombs along the Appian Way. The original covering of the tomb per the picture has been removed puro spettacolo the bare concrete.
Placed at a forty-five degree angle, the diamond-shaped bricks were normally made of tuff or tufa, which is a rock made from consolidated volcanic ash pushed out during a volcanic eruption. „Opus“ (term for per piece of art) and „reticulatum“ (net-like), translates to net-work; the design was named because the Romans believed the brickwork resembled per net. This design was prevalent mediante the first century BC.
Latin for „brickwork“, „opus latericium“ was the design used during the imperial eta durante Rome. A Roman architect, Vitruvius, used this term for structures that were built with unfired bricks.
The example of „opus reticulatum“ mediante the picture comes from verso wall sopra the city of Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Mt
Verso new Appian Way was constructed per 1784 that was parallel with the old one; now the older section of road that dates back onesto Roman times is called the „Strada Appia Antic“. The building is an example of verso tomb, built along the old stretch of the road, which dates back to ancient Rome.
Generally, this decorative pattern was used mediante the construction of pavement, but it was also used as a pattern on walls and as firebacks per hearths. This design was also used during the Middle Ages, as evidenced at Usk Castle con Wales, and into the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi used this pattern durante constructing the dome of the Cathedral of Florence.
Believed puro be the world’s oldest spese mall, Trajan’s Market was constructed sopra the Roman Forum durante the 100s AD. The multi-level structure included shops, offices, and even per library! The herringbone pattern was used to pave the floor of the market.
One of the earliest Roman architectural styles, „opus incertum“ first utilized irregularly-shaped rocks and careful placement to make the concrete rete informatica aspetto as plain as possible. Later the amount of concrete used was reduced, and more uniform stones were selected. This made the exterior look even plainer.
Mediante ancient times the Italian town of Terracina was strategically located for the defense of the city of Rome. The vertice of the city has a massive terrace, on which stood The Temple livelinks of Jupiter Anxur. Built during the first century BC, the temple was dedicated to Jupiter as per young man.
Also called „opus compositum“, „opus mixtum“, or „mixed rete informatica“, combines many different styles. Verso very popular method of brickwork used during the time of Emperor Hadrian, it usually mixes „opus reticulatum“ and „opus latericium“ or „opus vittatum“ and „opus testaceum“.
The design durante the picture is from the remains of per Roman amphitheatre sopra Naples. Ampitheatres were oval-shaped and generally used for gladiator fights, executions, or animals fights.
„Opus sectile“ was a technique used on floors or walls that employed the use of materials that were cut and inlaid. Commonly used materials included glass, marble and mother of pearl. The inlaid pieces used for „opus sectile“ are much larger than the ones used for the technique called „tessellated mosaic“. Other civilizations, such as Egypt, also used this technique.
The design of the „opus sectile“ was found on the floor of the Oratorio of Junius Bassus. Built on the Esquiline Hill, the tempio is considered preciso be the source of some of the best examples of this type of rete informatica.
The „opus africanum“ technique was also used per Carthaginian architecture, and is common in North Africa. It has also been found on buildings durante Sicily and southern Italy.
In the picture, the metroon, any building dedicated sicuro verso mother goddess, was built for Cybele, who was known durante Rome as the „Magna Mater“. The Romans officially adopted her cult after much dialogue during the Second Punic War, which was fought against Carthage sopra Africa. Cybele became Rome’s „Great Mother“ until Christianity overtook the pagan religion.
At that time mortar was not used and the blocks were uneven. The Greeks altered the „Etruscan Way“, using stretchers, or long blocks and headers, which turned the blocks width-wise. Once the Romans invented concrete, walls mediante this style were common.
In architecture, having verso coffered dome, which is also called verso lacunar ceiling, meant that it was made of sunken panels, done in some type of geometric shape. The panels mediante the Pantheon dome are square. This method was employed sicuro try and lighten some of the weight that the dome had puro carry, while keeping the integrity of the framework.
First commissioned during the reign of Augustus, and destroyed by fire sopra 80 AD, the Pantheon was rebuilt sopra 126 AD during the reign of Hadrian. As its name implies, the Pantheon was built as verso temple for all the gods. Since Roman times it has been used as per Christian church as well as a tomb.